As a holistic project REMUS relies on an extensive literature review. All components of REMUS are supported by literature and consulted by experts working in specific fields. In this section you will find a table summarizing the default settings of REMUS and a list of all references used for building of the model.

See a table summarizing the original settings of REMUS with corresponding references.

Below you can find a complete list of all references consulted during the process of building REMUS:

Adamczewski J.Z., C.C. Gates, B.M. Soutar, R.J. Hudson. 1988. Limiting effects of snow on seasonal habitat use and diets of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) on Coast Island, Northwest territories, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 66:1986-1996.

Adams, L.G., B.W. Dale, L.D. Mech. 1995. Wolf predation on caribou calves in Denali National Park, Alaska. In Carbyn, L. N., Fritts, S. H., and Seip, D. R., eds. Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. Edmonton, Alberta. Canadian Circumpolar Institute, pp. 245-260.

Addison, P.A. 1984. Quantification of branch dwelling lichens for the detection of air pollution impact. Lichenologist 16(3): 297-304.

Alberta Environmental Protection. 1998. Alberta’s threatened wildlife: woodland caribou.

Alberta Environmental Protection. 2001. Northern moose management program progress report. Website available at: Accessesd: July 2001.

Alberta Wildlife Management Division. 1996. The status of Alberta wildlife. Alberta Environmental Protection, Natural resources Service, Wildlife Management Division, Edmonton, AB. 44 pp.
Allee, W.C. 1931. Animal Aggregations. A study in general sociology. University of Chicago Press. Chicago.

Alvarez, L.H.R. 1998. Optimal harvesting under stochastic fluctuations and critical depensation. Math. Biosci. 152(1) 63-85.

Anderson, R.B. 1999. Peatland habitat use and selection by woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in northern Alberta. Master of Science Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. 59 pp.

Anonymous. 1996. Alberta’s woodland caribou conservation strategy. Unpublished report prepared by Alberta Woodland Caribou Conservation Strategy Development Committee. 58pp, Edmonton.

Arsenault, D.; Villeneuve, N.; Boismenu, C.; Leblanc, Y.; Deshaye, J. 1997. Estimating lichen biomass and caribou grazing on the wintering grounds of northern Quebec: an application of fire history and Landsat data. Journal of Applied Ecology. 34: 65-78.

Arseneau, M. J.; Sirois, L.; Ouellet J. P. 1997. Effects of altitude and tree height on the distribution and biomass of fruticose arboreal lichens in an old growth balsam fir forest. Ecoscience. 4 (2) 206-213.

Arseneau, M.J. 1996. Biomasse, diversite et productivite des lichens arboricores frutoculeux-radies dans les sapinieres matures du Parc de la Gaspesie, Quebec. M.Sc. thesis, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal.

Ballard, W.B. 1994. Effects of black bear predation on caribou – a review. Alces 30: 25-35.

Ballard, W.B., D. Lutz, T.W. Keegan, L.H. Carpenter, J.C. De Vos, Jr. 2001. Deer-predator relationships: a review of recent North American studies with emphasis on mule and black-tailed deer. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(1): 99-115.

Ballard, W.B., J.S. Whitman, C.L. Gardner. 1987. Ecology of an exploited wolf population in south-central Alaska. Wildlife Monographs 98: 1-54.

Banff-Bow Valley Study. 1996. Banff-Bow Valley: at the crossroads. Technical report of the Banff-Bow Valley Task Force (Robert Page, Suzanne Bayley, J. Douglas Cook, Jeffrey E. Green, and J.R. Brent Ritchie). Prepared for the Honourable Sheila Copps, Minister of Canadian Heritage, Ottawa, ON.

Bartell, S.; A. Brenkert; R. O’Neill; R. Gardener. 1988. Temporal variation in regulation of production in a pelagic food web model. In complex Interactions in Lake Communities (Carpenter, S., ed.), pp. 101-118. Berlin Springer-Verlag.

Bayliss, P. 1987. Kangaroo dynamics. In: Caughley, G., Shepherd, N. and Short, J., eds. Kangaroos: Their ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia, pp. 119-134. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Begon, M., J.L. Harper, C.R. Townsend. 1990. Ecology. Individuals, Populations and Communities. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Second edition.

Bergerud, A. T. 1971. Abundance of forage on the winter range of Newfoundland caribou. Canadian Field Naturalist 85: 39-52.

Bergerud, A.T. 1972. Food habits of Newfoundland caribou. Journal of Wildlife Management 36(3): 913-923.

Bergerud, A.T. 1974. The decline of caribou in North America following settlement. Journal of Wildlife Management 38: 757-770.

Bergerud, A.T. 1983. Prey switching in a simple ecosystem. Scientific American 249: 130-141.

Bergerud, A.T. 1985. Antipredator tactics of caribou: dispersion along shorelines. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63: 1324-1329.

Bergerud, A.T. 1988. Caribou, Wolves and Man. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 3(3): 68-72.

Bergerud, A.T. 1996. Evolving perspectives on caribou population dynamics, have we got it right yet? Rangifer, Special Issue No. 9, 95-116.

Bergerud, A.T. and F. Manuel. 1969. Aerial census of moose in central Newfoundland. Journal of Wildlife Management 33(4): 910-916.

Bergerud, A.T. and J.B. Snider. 1988. Predation in the dynamics of moose populations: a reply. Journal of Wildlife Management 52(3): 559-564.

Bergerud, A.T. and J.P. Elliott. 1986. Dynamics of caribou and wolves in northern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64: 1515-1529.

Bergerud, A.T. and J.P. Elliott. 1998. Wolf predation in a multiple-ungulate system in northern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76: 1551-1569.

Bergerud, A.T. and R.E. Page. 1987. Displacement and dispersion of parturient caribou at calving as antipredator tactics. Canadian Journal of Zoology 65: 1597-1606.

Bergerud, A.T. and W.B. Ballard. 1988. Wolf predation on caribou: The Nelchina herd case history, a different interpretation. Journal of Wildlife Management 52(2): 344-357.

Bergerud, A.T. and W.B. Ballard. 1989. Wolf predation on the Nelchina caribou herd: a reply. Journal of Wildlife Management 53(1): 251-259.

Bergerud, A.T., J.P. Elliot. 1986. Dynamics of caribou and wolves in northern British Columbia. Can. J. Zool. 64:1515-1529.

Bergerud, A.T., R.D. Jakimchuk, D.R. Carruthers. 1984. The buffalo of the north: caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and human developments. Arctic 37:7-22.

Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board. 2001. Internet website available at:

Biggs, J.F.; S.N. Francoeur; A.D. Huryn; R. Young, C.J. Arbuckle, C.R. Townsend. 2000. Trophic cascades in streams: effects of nutrient enrichment on autotrophic and consumer benthic communities under two different fish predation regimes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 57: 1380-1394.

Blyth, C.B. 1995. Dynamics of Ungulate populations in Elk Island National Park. Master of Science Thesis. University of Alberta. 140 pp.

Boertje, R D. 1990. Diet quality and intake requirements of adult female caribou of the Denali herd, Alaska (USA). J. Appl. Ecol. 27(2): 420-434.

Boertje, R.D.,P. Valkenburg, M.E. McNay. 1996. Increases in moose, caribou, and wolves following wolf control in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 60(3): 474-489.

Boileau, F., M. Crete, J. Huot. 1994. Food habits of the black bear, Ursus americanus, and habitat use in Gaspesie Park, eastern Quebec. Canadian Field-Naturalist 108(2): 162-169.

Boreal Caribou Committee. 2000. Research Summary 2000. BCRP, Edmonton, AB. 38 pp.

Boreal Caribou Research Program. 1999. Research Summary. Edmonton, Alberta: Boreal Caribou Research Program.

Boreal Caribou Research Program. 2000. Research Summary 2000. BCRP, Edmonton, AB. 38 pp.

Boutin, S. 1992. Predation and moose population dynamics: a critique. Journal of Wildlife Management 56(1): 116-127.

Boutin, S. 1995. Testing predator-prey theory by studying fluctuating populations of small mammals. Wildlife Research 22: 89-100.

Boyce, M.S. 1995. Anticipating consequences of wolves in Yellowstone: Model Validation. In Carbyn, L. N.; Fritts, S. H., and Seip, D. R., eds. Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. Edmonton, Alberta. Canadian Circumpolar Institute, pp. 199-209.

Boyce, M.S. 2000. Modeling predator – prey dynamics. Pages 253-287 in L. Boitani and T.K. Fuller, editors. Research techniques in animal ecology – controversies and consequences. Columbia University Press, New York.

Bradshaw, C.J.A. 1994. An assessment of the effects of petroleum exploration on woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in northern Alberta. Master of Science Thesis. University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. 121 pp.

Bradshaw, C.J.A., and D.M. Hebert. 1996. Woodland caribou population decline in Alberta: fact or fiction? Rangifer, Special Issue No. 9: 223-234.

Bradshaw, C.J.A., D.M. Hebert, A.B. Rippin, S. Boutin. 1995. Winter peatland habitat selection by woodland caribou in northeastern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Zoology 73: 1567-1574.

Bradshaw, C.J.A., S. Boutin, D.M. Hebert. 1997. Effects of petroleum exploration on Woodland Caribou in northeastern Alberta. Journal of Wildlife Management 61(4): 1127-1133.

Brakenhielm, S.; Qinghong, L.1995. Spatial and temporal variability of algal and lichen epiphytes on trees in relation to pollutant deposition in Sweden. Water Air Soil Pollut. 79(1-4): 61-74.

Brown, W.K., J.B. Theberge. 1990. The effects of extreme snowcover on feeding-site selection by woodland caribou. Journal of Wildlife Management 54(1):161-168.

Cameron, R.D., W.T. Smith, S.G. Fancy, K.L. Gerhart and R.G. White. 1993. Calving success of female caribou in relation to body weight. Canadian. Journal of Zoology. 71:480-486.

Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (CEAA). Cumulative effects assessment practitioners guide [Web Page]. 1999; Accessed 1999 Apr 21. Available at:

Caraco, T., and L.L. Wolf. 1975. Ecological determinants of group sizes of foraging lions. American Naturalist 109: 343- 352.

Case, J.W.1980. Influence of Three Sour Gas Processing Plants on the Ecological Distribution of Epiphytic Lichens in the Vicinity of Fox Creek and Whitecourt, Alberta Canada. Water Air and Soil Pollut. 14: 45-68.

Case, J.W.1984. Lichen biomonitoring networks in Alberta. Environ. Monit. Assess.4(3): 303-313.

Caughley G., A.R.E. Sinclair. 1994. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Blackwell Science 1994. 305pp.

Chettri, M.K.; T. Sawidis.1997. Impact of heavy metals on water loss from lichen thalli. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 37(2): pp. 103-111.

Chubbs, E. Tony, L. B. Keith, S. P. Mahoney, and M. J. McGrath. 1993. Responses of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) to clear-cutting in east-central Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:487-493.

Cocklin, C., S.Parker, and J.Hay. 1992. Notes on Cumulative Environmental Change I: Concepts and Issues. J. Environ. Manage. 35:31-49.

Coe, N.J., D.H. Cumming, J. Philipson. 1976. Biomass and production of large African herbivores in relation to rainfall and primary production. Oecologia 22: 341-354.

Crete, M. and M. Manseau. 1996. Natural regulation of cervidae along a 1000 km latitudinal gradient: change in trophic dominance. Evolutionary Ecology 10: 51-62.

Crete, M.; Morneau, C.; Nault, R. 1990. Terrestrial lichen species and biomass available to caribou in northern Quebec (Canada) Can. J. of Bot. 68(10): 2047-2054

Croonquist, M. J. and Brooks, R P. 1991. Use of avian and mammalian guilds as indicators of cumulative impacts in riparian-wetland areas. Environmental Management. 15(5):701-714.

Cumming, S. G. 2001. Forest type and wildfire in the Alberta boreal mixedwood: what do fires burn? Ecological Applications 11 (1): 97-110.

Dale, B.W., L.G. Adams, R.T. Bowyer. 1994. Functional response of wolves preying on barren-ground caribou in a multiple-prey ecosystem. Journal of Animal Ecology 63: 644-652.

Dillman, K.L. 1996. Use of the lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma as a biomonitor in relation to phosphate refineries near Pocatello, Idaho. Environ. Pollut. 92(1): 91-96.

Dyer, S.J. 1999. Movement and distribution of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in response to industrial development in northeastern Alberta. Master of Science Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. 106 pp.

Dyer, S.J., J.P. O'Neill, S.M. Wasel, and S. Boutin. 2001. Avoidance of industrial development by woodland caribou. Journal of Wildlife Management 65(3): 531-542.

Dzus, E. 2001. Status of the Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Alberta. Alberta Environment, Fisheries and Wildlife Management Division, and Alberta Conservation Association, Wildlife Status Report No. 30, Edmonton, AB. 47pp.

Dzus, E. and S. Boutin. 1998. Solving Woodland Caribou conservation problems through partnerships: the NERSC case study. Pp. 83-88 in Proceedings of the technical papers presented at the 79th annual meeting of the Canadian Woodlands Forum (Anonymous, eds.). Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Montreal, QC.

Eberhardt, L.L. and R.O. Peterson. 1999. Predicting the wolf-prey equilibrium point. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77: 494-498.

Ederhardt, L.L. 1998. Applying difference equations to wolf predation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76: 380-386.

Edmonds, E.J. 1988. Population status, distribution, and movements of woodland caribou in west central Alberta. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66: 817-826.

Edmonds, E.J. 1991. Status of woodland caribou in western North America. Rangifer Special Issue No. 7: 91-107.

Edmonds, J. 1996. Status of woodland caribou in Alberta. Rangifer Special Issue No. 10: 111-115.

Edmonds, J., and M. Bloomfield. 1984. A study of woddland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in west central Alberta, 1979-1983. Alberta Energy and Natural Resources, Fish and Wild. Div., Edmonton, Alberta. 203 pp.

Edwards, R.Y.; R.W. Ritcey. 1960. Foods of caribou in Wells Gray Park, British Columbia. Can. Field-Nat. 74:3-7

Ehnes, J. W. 2000a. What does a large wildfire disturb and what does it leave in the eastern two-thirds of the Manitoba Model Forest? Manitoba Model Forest Project # 99-2-49, Manitoba Model Forest, Pine Falls, Manitoba.

Elkin, B.T.; R.W. Bethke .1995. Environmental contaminants in caribou in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Landers, D.H.; Christie, S.J.(eds), pp. 307-321, Sci. Total Environ. vol. 160-161.

Finley C.G. 1998. Pipeline Project Cumulative Effects Assessments. Master of Science Thesis. Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary.

Fretwell, S.D. 1977. The regulation of plant communities by food chains exploiting them. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 20: 169:185.

Fuller T.K., L. B. Keith. 1981. Woodland Caribou population dynamics in northeastern Alberta. Journal of Wildlife Management 45(1): 197-213.

Fuller, T.F. 1989. Population dynamics of wolves in north-central Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 105: 1-41.

Gaare, E. 1997. A hypothesis to explain lichen-Rangifer dynamic relationship. Rangifer, 17(1): 3-7.

Gasaway, W.C.; R.D. Boertje, D.V. Grangaard, D.G. Kellyhouse, R.O. Stephenson, D.G. Larsen. 1992. The role of predation in limiting moose at low densities in Alaska and Yukon and implications for conservation. Wildlife Monographs 120: 1-59.

Gass, C.L., G. Angehr, J. Centa. 1976. Regulation of food supply by feeding territoriality in the rufous hummingbird. Canadian Journal of Zoology 54: 2046- 2054.

Glenn, M.G.; S.L. Webb; M.S. Cole. 1998. Forest integrity at anthropogenic edges: Air pollution disrupts bioindicators. Environ. Monit. Assess. 51(1-2): 163-169.

Government of Alberta Web Site. 1998. Available at:

Gunn, J; Keller, W; Negusanti, J; Potvin, R; Beckett, P; Winterhalder, K.1995. Ecosystem recovery after emission reductions: Sudbury, Canada. Water Air Soil Pollut. 85(3): 1783-1788.

Gunson, J.R. 1992. Historical and present management of wolves in Alberta. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20(3): 330-339.

Haapala, H; Goltsova, N; Seppaelae, R; Huttunen, S; Kouki, J; Lamppu, J; Popovichev, B.1996. Ecological condition of forests around the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland. Environ. Pollut. (91): 253-265.

Hairston, N.G., F.E. Smith, L.B. Slobodkin. 1960. Community structure, population control, and competition. American Naturalist 94: 421-424.

Hamilton, G.D., and C. Edey. 1998. The Northeast Region Standing Committee on Woodland Caribou (NERSC): an example of a co-operative management partnership. Rangifer Special Issue No. 10: 231-234.

Hanson, W.C.; F.W. Whicker; J.F. Lipscomb. 1975. Lichen forage ingestion rates of free-roaming caribou estimated with fallout cesium-137. Pages 71-79 in J.R. Luick, P.C. Lent, D.R. Klein, R.G. White, eds., Proc. First International Symp. Biological Papers of the Univ. of Alaska. Sr1. Fairbanks, Alaska. 551pp.

Harris, A. 1992. Post-logging regeneration of reindeer lichens (Cladina spp.) as related to woodland caribou winter habitat. Northwest Region Science and Technology Technical Report #69. 33pp.

Hauge, T.M. and Keith. 1981. Dynamics of moose populations in northeastern Alberta. Journal of Wildlife Management 45(3): 573-597.

Hayes, R.D. and A.S. Harestad. 2000a. Demography of a recovering wolf population in the Yukon. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 36-48.

Hayes, R.D. and A.S. Harestad. 2000b. Wolf functional response and regulation of moose in the Yukon. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 60-66.

Hayes, R.D. and D.E. Russel. 2000. Predation rate by wolves on the Porcupine caribou herd. Rangifer 12: 51-58.

Hayes, R.D., A.M. Baer, U. Wotschikowsky, A.S. Harestad. 2000. Kill rate by wolves on moose in the Yukon. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 49-59.

Heard, D.C;T.M. Williams,D.A. Melton. 1996. The relationship between food intake and predation risk in migratory caribou and implications to caribou and wolf population dynamics. Rangifer, Special Issue No. 9, 37-44.

Henry, G.H.R.; A. Gunn. 1991. Recovery of tundra vegetation after overgrazing by caribou in Arctic Canada. Arctic 44(1): 38-42.

Henshaw, J. 1968. The activities of the wintering caribou in northwestern Alaska in relation to weather and snow conditions. Journal of Biometeorology 12: 21-27.

Henson, P., and T.A. Grant. 1991. The effects of human disturbance on trumpeter swan breeding behaviour. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 19(3): 248-257.

Herenden, R.A. 1995. A unified quantitative approach to trophic cascade and bottom-up: top-down hypotheses. Journal of Theoretical Biology 176: 13-26.

High Performance Systems, Inc. 2000. [Web Page]. Available at:

Holleman, D. F., J. R. Luick, R. G. White. 1979. Lichen intake estimates for reindeer and caribou during winter. Journal of Wildlife management 43(1): 192-201.

Holling, C.S. 1959. The components of predation as revealed by a study of small-mammal predation of the European pine sawfly. Canadian Entomologist 91:293-320.

Horejsi, B.L. 1979. Seismic operations and their impact on large mammals: results of a monitoring program. Prepared for Mobil Oil Canada. Western Wildlife Environmental, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Huggard, D.J. 1993. Effect of snow depth on predation and scavenging by gray wolves. Journal of Wildlife Management 57(2): 382-388.

Hunter, M.D.; P.W. Price. 1992. Playing chutes and ladders: bottom-up and top-down forces in natural communities. Ecology 73: 724-732.

Huryn, A. 1998. Ecosystem-level evidence for top-down and bottom-up control of production in grassland stream system. Oecologia 115: 173-183.

Jacobsen, E.; and Skjenneberg, S. 1975. Some results from feeding experiments with reindeer. In Proceedings of the First International Reindeer/Caribou Symposium, Fairbanks, Alaska, August 9-11, 1972. Edited by J.R. Luick, P.C. Lent, D.R. Klein and R.G. White. Biol. Pap. Univ. Alaska Spec. Rep. No.1.pp 95-107.

Jalkotzy, M.G., P.I. Ross, M.D> Nasserden. 1997. The effects of linear developments on wildlife: A review of selected scientific literature. Prep. For Canadian Assoc. Petroleum Producers. Arc Wildlife Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

James, A.R.C. 1999. Effects of industrial development on the predator-prey relationship between wolves and caribou in northeastern Alberta. Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton Alberta. 70 pp.

James, A.R.C. and A.K. Stuart-Smith. 2000. Distribution of caribou and wolves in relation to linear corridors. Journal of Wildlife Management 64(1): 154-159.

Jedrzejewska, B., H. Okarma, W. Jedrzejewski, L. Milkowski. 1994. Effects of exploitation and protection on forest structure, ungulate density and wolf predation in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland. Journal of Applied Ecology 31: 664-676.

Jedrzejewska, B., W. Jedrzejewski, A.N. Bunevich, L. Milkowski, H. Okarma. 1996. Population dynamics of wolves (Canis lupus) in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland and Belarus) in relation to hunting by humans, 1847-1993. Mammal Review 26 (2-3): 103-126.

Jedrzejewska, B., W. Jedrzejewski, A.N. Bunevich, L. Milkowski, Z.A. Krasinski. 1997. Factors shaping population densities and increase rates of ungulates in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland and Belarus) in the 19th and 20th centuries. Acta Theriologica 4294): 339-451.

Kansas, John, L.; Kent, W. Brown. 1992. Preliminary lichen habitat suitability assessment for the Little Smoky Primary Caribou Winter Range. Report prepared for Alberta Newsprint Company Ltd. Unpublished report.

Kelsall, J.P. 1968. The Caribou. Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Canadian Wildlife Service. Ottawa 1968.

Kelsall, J.P., and E.S. Telfer. 1971. Studies on the physical adaptation of big game for snow. In Proceedings of the Snow and Ice in Relation to Wildlife and recreation Symposium., Ames, Iowa, 11-12 February 1971. Edited by A.O. Haugen. Iowa Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, Iowa State University, Ames. pp. 134-146.

Kennedy, A. J. 1994. Cumulative Effects Assessment in Canada: from concept to practice. Calgary, Alberta: Alberta Association of Professional Biologists.

Kidd, A.K.; D.W. Schindler; D.C.G. Muir; W.L. Lockhart; R.H. Hesselein. 1995. High concentrations of toxaphene in fishes from a subarctic lake. Science 269: 240-242.

Kindvall, O; Vessby, K; Berggren, A; Hartman, G.1998. Individual mobility prevents an Allee effect in sparse populations of the bush cricket. Oikos, 81(3): 449-457.

Klein, D.R., 1987. Vegetation recovery patterns following overgrazing by reindeer on St. Matthew Island. J. Range Manage. 40: 336-338.

Klein, D.R., 1989. Subsistence hunting. In Wildlife production systems: economic utilization of wild ungulates. R.J. Hudson, K.R. Drew and L.M. Baskin eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989, pp. 51-53.

Klein, D.R.; T.J. Vlasova. 1992. Lichens, a unique forage resource threatened by air pollution. Rangifer, 12(1): 21-27.

Krebs, C.J.; S. Boutin, R. Boonstra, A.R.E. Sinclair, J.N.M. Smith, M.R.T. Dale, K. Martin, R. Turkington. 1995. Impact of food and predation on the snowshoe hare cycle. Science 269: 1112-1115.

Kunkel, K.E.; L.D. Mech. 1994. Wolf and bear predation on white-tailed deer fawns in northeastern Minnesota. Can. J. Zool. 72(9): 1557-1565.

Kuussaari, M; Saccheri, I; Camara, M; Hanski, I. 1998. Allee effect and population dynamics in the Glanville fritillary butterfly. Oikos 82(2): 384-392.

Lande, R. 1998. Demographic stochasticity and Allee effect on a scale with isotropic noise. Oikos 83(2): 353-358.

Li, H. W., G. A. Lamberti, T. N. Pearsons, C. K. Tait, J. L. Li, and J. L. Buckhouse. 1994. Cumulative effects of riparian disturbances along High Desert Trout Streams of the John Day Basin, Oregon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 123:627-640.

Macdonald, C.R.; L.L. Ewing; B.T. Elkin; A.M. Wiewel.1996. Regional variation in radionuclide concentrations and radiation dose in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in the Canadian Arctic; 1992-94. Sci.Total Environ.182(1-3): 53-73.

Marshal, J.P. 1997. Statistical analysis and interpretation of predation data from wolf-moose systems. Master of Science Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. 82 pp.

Marshal, J.P. and S. Boutin. 1999. Power analysis of wolf-moose functional responses. Journal of Wildlife Management 63(1): 396-402.

Mduma, S.A.R., A.R.E. Sinclair, R. Hilborn. 1999. Food regulates the Serengeti wildebeest: a 40-year record. Journal of Animal Ecology 68(6): 1101-1122.

Mech, L.D., S. H. Fritts, G.L. Radde, W.J. Paul. 1988. Wolf distribution and road density in Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 16: 85-87.

Messier, F. 1985. Social organization, spatial distribution, and population density of wolves in relation to moose density. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63(5): 1068-1077.

Messier, F. 1987. Physical condition and blood physiology of wolves in relation to moose density. Canadian Journal of Zoology 65(1): 91-95.

Messier, F. 1991. The significance of limiting and regulating factors on the demography of moose and white-tailed deer. Journal of Animal Ecology 60: 377-393.

Messier, F. 1994. Ungulate population models with predation: a case study with the North American moose. Ecology. 75(2): 478-488.

Messier, F. 1995. On the functional and numerical responses of wolves to changing prey density. In: Carbyn, L. N.; Fritts, S. H., and Seip, D. R., eds. Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Circumpolar Institute; 1995 pp: 187-197.

Messier, F. and D.O. Joly. 2000. Comment: Regulation of moose populations by wolf predation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 506-510.

Messier, F. and M. Crete. 1985. Moose-wolf dynamics and the natural regulation of moose populations. Oecologia 65(4): 503-512.

Messier, F.; J. Huot; D. LeHenaff; S. Luttich. 1988. Demography of the George River Caribou Herd: Evidence of population regulation by forage exploitation and range expansion. Arctic 41(4): 279-287.

Miller, D.R. 1976. Wildfire and caribou on the taiga ecosystem of north-central Canada. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 125pp.

Montopoli, G.J. and D. A. Anderson. 1991. A logistic model for the cumulative effects of human intervention on bald eagle habitat. Journal of Wildlife Management 55(2): 290-293.

Moon, D.C.; P. Stiling; M.V. Cattell. 1999. Experimental tests of trophic dynamics: taking a closer look. Oecologia 119: 275-280.

Mytton, W.R. and L.B. Keith. 1981. Dynamics of moose populations near Rochester, Alberta, 1975-1978.

Nellemann, Ch. and R. D. Cameron. 1996. Effects of petroleum development on terrain preferences of calving caribou. Arctic. 49(1):23-28.

Nudds, T.D. 1978. Convergence of group size strategies by mammalian social carnivores. American Naturalist 112: 957-960.

Oberg, P. 2001. The Responses of Mountain Caribou to Linear Features in a West-Central Alberta Landscape. Master of Science Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. 126pp.

Okarma, H., W. Jedrzejewski, K. Schmidt, S. Sniezko, A.N. Bunevich, B. Jedrzejewska. 1998. Home ranges of wolves in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland, compared with other Eurasian populations. Journal of Mammalogy 79(3): 842-852.

Oksanen, L.; S.D. Fretwell; J. Aruda; P. Niemela. 1981. Exploitation ecosystems in gradients of primary productivity. American Naturalist. 118: 240-261.

Olech, M; W.M. Kwiatek; E.M. Dutkiewicz. 1998. Lead pollution in the Antarctic region. X-Ray Spectrom. 27(4): 232-235.

Ouellet, J. P., D. C. Heard, and S. Boutin. 1993. Range impacts following the introduction of Caribou on Southampton Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Arctic and Alpine Research 25:136-141.

Ouellet, J.P., J. Ferron, L. Sirois. 1996. Space and habitat use by the threatened Gaspe caribou in southeastern Quebec. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74(10): 1922-1933.

Ouellet, J.-P.; D.C. Heard; R. Moulders. 1996. Population ecology of caribou populations without predators: Southampton and Coast Island Herds. Rangifer, Special Issue No.9: 17-26.

Ouellet, J.P.; Ferron, J.; Sirois, L. 1996. Space and habitat use by the threatened Gaspé caribou in southeastern Quebec. Can. J. Zool. 74:1922-1933.

Ouellet, J.-P.; S. Boutin; D.C. Heard. 1994. Responses to stimulated grazing and browsing of vegetation available to caribou in the Arctic. Can. J. Zool. 72: 1426-1435.

Parker, G.R. 1978. The diets of muskoxen and Peary Caribou on some islands in the Canadian High Arctic. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service (Occasional Paper No. 35). 21pp.

Pegau, R.E. 1968. Growth rates of important reindeer forage lichens on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Arctic 21(4): 255-259.

Peterson, R.O., R.E. Page, K.M. Dodge. 1984. Wolves, moose, and the allometry of population cycles. Science 224: 1350–1352.

Pitt, W.C. and P.A. Jordan. 1996. Influence of campsites on black bear habitat use and potential impact on caribou restoration. Restoration Ecology 4(4): 423-426.

Pletscher, D.H., R.R. Ream, D.K. Boyd, M.W. Fairchild, K.E. Kunkel. 1997. Population dynamics of a recolonizing wolf population. Journal of Wildlife Management 61(2): 459-465.

Power, M. 1992. Top-down and bottom-up forces in food webs: do plants have primacy? Ecology 73(3): 733-746.

Pruitt, W.O. 1979. A numerical “Snow Index” for reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) winter ecology (Mammalia, Cervidae). Annales Zoologici Fennici 16: 271-280.

Ragier H. 1998. Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network 1998. [Web Page]. Available at:

Renecker, L.A., R.J. Hudson. 1986. Seasonal foraging rates of free-ranging moose. Journal of Wildlife Management. 50(1): 143-147.

Rock, T. W. 1992. A proposal for the management of woodland caribou in Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Dep. Nat. Resour. Wildl. Tech. Rep. No. 92-3. 28pp.

Rominger, E. M., and J. L. Oldemeyer. 1990. Early-winter diet of woodland caribou in relation to snow accumulation, Selkirk Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68:2691-2694.

Rominger, E. M., C. T. Robbins, M. A. Evans. 1996. Winter foraging ecology of woodland caribou in northeastern Washington. J. Wildl. Manage. 60:719-728.

Rominger, E.; Robbins, Charles T. 1996. Generic preference and in-vivo digestability of alectoroid arboreal lichens by woodland caribou. Rangifer, Special Issue No. 9: 379-380.

Samuel, W. M. and D. A. Welch. 1991. Winter ticks on moose and other ungulates factors influencing their population size. Alces. 27:169-182.

Schaefer, J. A., and W. O. JR. Pruitt. 1991. Fire and woodland caribou in southeastern Manitoba (Canada). Wildlife Monographs (116) 1-39.

Schindler, D.W.; K.A. Kidd; D.C.G. Muir; W.L. Lockhart. 1995. Sci. Total Environ. 160/161: 1-17.

Schmidt, P.A., and L.D. Mech. 1997. Wolf pack size and food acquisition. American Naturalist 150(4): 513-517.

Schneider, R.R. and S. Wasel. 2000. The effect of human settlement on the density of moose in northern Alberta. Journal of Wildlife Management 64(2): 513-520.

Schneider, R.R., Wynes, B., Wasel, S., Dzus, E. 2000. Rate of movement of caribou in northern Alberta relative to snow depth and time of year. Unpublished report, BCRP.

Scotter, G.W. 1965. Study of the winter range of barren-ground caribou with special reference to the effects of forest fires. Can. Wildl. Serv. Prog. Rep. No. 3. 81pp.

Segel, I.H. 1993. Enzyme kinetics – behavior and analysis of rapid equilibrium and steady-state enzyme systems. Wiley Classics Library Edition.

Seip, D.R. 1991. Predation and caribou population. Proceedings of the Fifth North American Caribou Workshop, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Rangifer Special Issue No. 7: 46-52.

Seip, D.R. 1992. Factors limiting woodland caribou populations and their interrelationships with wolves and moose in southeastern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:1494-1503.

Seip, D.R. 1992. Habitat use and population status of woodland caribou in the Quesnel Highlands. B.C. Ministry of the Environment, Wildlife Bulletin. B-71

Shank, C.C., P.F. Wilkinson, and D.F. Penner. 1978. Diet of Peary caribou, Banks Island, N.W.T. Arctic 31(2): 125-132.

Sinclair, A.R.E., P. Arcese. 1995. Population consequences of predation-sensitive foraging: The Serengeti wildebeest. Ecology 76(3): 882-891.

Sinclair, A.R.E.; C.J. Krebs, J.M. Fryxell, R. Turkington; S. Boutin; R. Boonstra; P. Seccombe-Hett, P. Lundberg; L. Oksanen. 2000. Testing hypotheses of trophic level interactions: a boreal forest ecosystem. Oikos 89: 313-328.

Solomon, M.E. 1949. The natural control of animal populations. Journal of Animal Ecology 18: 1-35.

Spaling, H. and Smit B. A. 1995. Conceptual Model of Cumulative Environmental Effects of Agricultural Land Drainage. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 53(2): 99-108.

Spaulding, R.L., P.R. Krausman, W.B. Ballard. 1998. Summer Diet of Gray Wolves, Canis lupus, in Northwestern Alaska. Canadian Field-Naturalist 112(2): 262-266.

Starfield, A.M. 1997. A pragmatic approach to modeling for wildlife management. Journal of Wildlife Management 61(2): 261-270.

Stelfox, J.B. 1993. Hoofed mammals of Alberta. Edmonton, AB: Lone Pine, 1993

Stuart-Smith, A.K., C.J.A. Bradshaw, S. Boutin, D.M. Hebert, A.B. Rippin. 1997. Woodland caribou relative to landscape patterns in northeastern Alberta. Journal of Wildlife Management 61(3): 622-633.

Telfer E.S. 1984. Circumpolar distribution and habitat requirements of moose (Alces alces). Pages 145 – 136 in R. Olson, ed. Northern ecology and resource management. University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, AB.

Telfer, E.S., G.W. Scotter. 1975. Potential for game ranching in boreal aspen forests of western Canada. Journal of Range Management 28(3): 172-180.

Thiel, R. P. 1985. Relationship between road densities and wolf habitat suitability in Wisconsin. The American Midland Naturalist. 113(2): 404-407.

Thomas D.C., and H.P.L. Kiliaan. 1998. Fire-caribou relationships: (IV) Recovery of habitat after fire on winter range of the Beverly herd. Tech. Rep. Series No. 312. Can. Wildl. Serv., Prairie and Northern Reg., Edmonton, Alberta. 115pp.

Thomas, D. C. 1995. A review of wolf-caribou relationships and conservation implications in Canada. In: Carbyn, L. N.; Fritts, S. H., and Seip, D. R., eds. Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world ; 1992 Aug 25-1992 Aug 27; Edmonton, Alberta. Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Circumpolar Institute; 1995: 261-607.

Thomas, D. C.; E. J. Edmonds; W. K. Brown. 1996. The diet of woodland caribou populations in west-central Alberta. Rangifer, Special Issue No. 9, 1996.

Thompson, I.D. and R.O. Peterson. 1988. Does wolf predation alone limit the moose population in Pukaskwa Park? A comment. Journal of Wildlife Management 52(3): 556-559.

Thurber, J.M., and R.O. Peterson. 1993. Effects of population density and pack size on the foraging ecology of gray wolves. Journal of Mammalogy 74(4): 879-889.

Thurber, J.M., R.O. Peterson, T.D. Drummer, S.A. Thomasma. 1994. Gray wolf response to refuge boundaries and roads in Alaska. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 22: 61-68.

Trudell, J.; R.G. White. 1981. The effect of forage structure and availability on food intake, biting rate, bite size and daily eating time of reindeer. Journal of Applied Ecology 18: 63-81.

Van Ballenberghe, V. and W.B. Ballard. 1994. Limitation and regulation of moose populations: the role of predation. Canadian Journal Zoology 72: 2071-2077.

Van Daele, L. J.; Johnson, D. 1983. Estimation of arboreal lichen biomass available to Caribou. J. Wildl. Manage. 47(3):888-890

Veit, R.R.; M.A. Lewis. 1996. Dispersal, population growth, and the Allee effect: Dynamics of the house finch invasion of eastern North America. Am. Nat.148 (2): 255-274.

Vokou, D.; Pirintsos, S.; Loppi, S. 1999. Lichens as bioindicators of temporal variations in air quality around Thessaloniki, northern Greece. Ecol. Res. 14(2): 89-96.

Walters, C. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. Macmillan, New York.

Welch, D. A., W. M. Samuel, and , C. J. Wilke. 1990. Dermacentor albipictus (acari, ixodidae) on captive reindeer and free ranging woodland caribou. Journal of Wildlife Diseases.26(3):410-411.

White, K.A.J., M.A. Lewis, J.D. Murray. 1996. A model for wolf-pack territory formation and maintenance. Journal of Theoretical Biology 178(1): 29-43.

Wickstrom, M.L., C.T. Robbins, T.A. Hanley, D.E. Spalinger, S.M. Parish. 1984. Food intake and foraging energetics of elk and mule deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 48(4): 1285-1301.

Wydeven, A.P., R.N. Schults, R.P. Thiel. 1995. Monitoring of a recovering gray wolf population in Wisconsin, 1979-1991. In L. N. Carbyn, S. H. Fritts, D. R. Seip, ed.1995 Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. pp. 187-19. University of Alberta, Canadian Circumpolar Institute, 1995.

Yoshimura, A; Kawasaki, K; Takasu, F; Togashi, K; Futai, K; Shigesada, N. 1999. Modeling the spread of pine wilt disease caused by nematodes with pine sawyers as vector. Ecology 80(5): 1691-1702.

Young, B.F., and R.L. Ruff. 1982. Population dynamics and movements of black bears in east central Alberta. Journal of Wildlife Management 46(4): 845-860.

Young, D.D.; T.R. McCabe. 1997. Grizzly bear predation rates on caribou calves in northeastern Alaska. J. Wildl. Manage. 61(4): 1056-1066.



copyrightãPiotr Weclaw, 2003, 2004